Torna a Versione in Italiano
Inventory of the archaeological sites of Prenuragic, Nuragic and Roman cultures, recorded through Mario Unalis identification in the territory of Chiaramonti, Sassari. Sardegna ITALIA. ( traduzione a cura della Prof.ssa Lina Unali)
I shall here give a short and synthetic description of the territory of Chiaramonti which lies within the province of Sassari (Sardinia), both from an environmental and an archaeological point of view.
The sites which have been localized take their names from the toponyms of the grounds where they were found. They are sometimes known through one or more names, a circumstance that may cause confusion and alter their numerical consistency.
The nuraghes and the other monuments, about which I shall later report, are for the most part reduced to a state of ruins and in few of them only it is possible to get inside. The majority of them are subject to almost every day tamperings on the part of improvised treasure seekers who are unaware of the irreversible destruction deriving from their irresponsible activity.
The impoverishment of our sites should stop immediately;
it is necessary to carry out strategies of preservation if we do not wish to further waste
these fundamental tassels in our understanding of the various historical eras that may
make us acquainted with the life of our ancestors which were the origin not only of our
genetics, but also of our historical and cultural anthropology.
method followed :
As far as possible, I tried to
plan the survey in the most rational and systematic way, travelling far and wide through
the territory. I visited several villages spread in the whole territory, inhabited by
people with whom I was personally acquainted and with whom I was on friendly terms; I
observed their activities, first of all sheep-farming and agriculture, handled with
advanced technologies, but through their various connotations still connected to the
farming tradition inherited from their nineteenth and twentieth-century grandfathers and
great grandfathers. These people took me along paths and gorges; they retold me sos
contos de foghile (fireplace stories) with which they were familiar: episodes and
anecdotes that have been useful for the retrieval of the ancient toponyms.
territory: plants and animals:
Its orography is various and
heterogeneous: not very high and round-shaped hills in the north west; harsh and steep
peaks in the north east; thick forests of oaks and holm oaks in the south:
tanche (pieces of land surrounded by low non cemented stone walls), unused as
pasture lands, covered with asphodels and flowers of red rockroses and light blue mastics.
There are meadows which abound with a great variety of plants and medicinal herbs as far as one can see, shapelessly rising either gently or roughly among rocky cracks shaped by the working of time, in the colours of moss grey and red lichens, changing according to the time of day, sometimes gloomy and sad, resembling those fairies and gnomes that, according to the legends, are believed to populate the thick forest, among the steep passages overflowing with streams full of foaming and fresh waters that the mountains send to the valleys in order to make them fertile and rich in nourishment for the herds.
Here and there,
not far from one another, ancient ruins of nuraghes can be seen nuraghes that still
bravely stand after thousands of years the harshness of the weather and the destructive
action of man. They are witnesses of those ancient ancestors who dared raise the cyclopean
constructions with their mighty features. They are preceded by the domus de janas, the
graves of proto-Sardinian inhabitants, of five or six thousand years ago, where the dead,
surrounded with their funeral apparels and painted in the colour of ochre, the symbol of
blood, go back to Mother Earths womb with the hope of resurrection; there are
megaliths that exhibit respect and feelings of sacredness to those who observe them, and
who were at the same time modest in
their constructions rising towards the sky in harmonious shapes.
Today, to the common people, they are known as the fairiess, inhabited by mysterious and not always good witches, even wicked ones at times, which the popular belief gives life within the context of legends, orally handed down by the fireside from generation to generation.
there are the giants tombs, some made with cut stones, others with isodome stones
with a cover of gigantic slabs, some with an exedra, others without one. It is not a rare
occurrence to stop in front of a dolmen, of a bethel, of a menhir, of a prenuragic
stronghold, of a ceremonial circle of large or small dimensions, or even in front of a
little temple of the kind of a Greek megaron.
One can walk for hours on undulated and fertile grounds, on inaccessible and briskly descending slopes, moving from the "Runda and Suerzones",
Up to a few years ago, the village territory was wider than 111 square Kilometres, then, with the creation of the new municipality (borough) of Erula almost 13 were given up, so that the town district presently comprises 98 square Kilometres.
At the bottom of deep canals, dug through the centuries by the waters running among trachytic rocks and the dark brown basalts, some microclimates were formed which favoured the survival of rare essences, local species of insects and of other animals. We cannot but be glad about the large quantity of flowers and mushrooms, which grow in the underwood amid ferns and musks, and dew wet lichens, which make the soil salts melt down to breathe out humours and perfumes. It is by moving from the farthest territory to another that one can easily bump into one of the hundred and more nuraghes that are not located in an homogenous way, that is according to rational rules, but at random, either in the form of giants tombs or of one of the many domus de janas or of a bethel or in a ceremonial circle of pietre fitte (standing stones). Therefore, these constructions appear to be built in places not systematically selected, apparently without any particular reason or sign of mutual connection, or conformity to a common goal. The nuraghes, are sometimes placed like sentries on top of the hills, sometimes upon small elevations within fertile valleys or on mild descending slopes, they appear as dumb witnesses of a great Mediterranean civilization.
If we go on listing the nuraghes that were visited during our recognition and of which some specifications will be given in the Appendix, we can obtain the following catalogue.
1. Abba de sa Pedra (s).
2. Agantinu (su)
3. Aijanu (su)
4. Aijanu de Giannichedda (su)
5. Arzola de Cogarzos
6. Aspru (s)
7. Aspru Santu Pedru (s)
8. Badde o sa Chiterra
9. Baddes o sas Coas (sas)
10. Bados de Lovč 1
11. Bados de Lovč 2
12. Badde de Cheija o Badu Olta
13. Badde de Purcheddu o sEnalonga
15. Bellimpiattu o Badu de Muzeres
17. Caddalzu o Uttigia (su)
18. Cannalzu (su)
19. Carralzu (su) o Aldu Pinzone
22. Coa Pertusa (sa)
24. Conca de Giuighe
26. Corrales o Giuntorzu o Giunturas
27. Crasta o sEna o Certias
28. Crastu Covaccadu (su) o Mazzone
30. Cudinas (sas)
31. Culu de Muru
32. Donna Ciccia
33. Elighia 1
34. Elighia 2
35. Elighia 3 o Tinnaru
36. Figu Niedda (sa)
37. Frades Contones
38. Frades Saba
40. Giaganu Dominigu 1
41. Giaganu Dominigu 2
42. Giaganu Dominigu 3
43. Giolvas (sas)
44. Iscala Lampadas o sElighe Entosu
45. Iscala de Malta
47. Ispiene (today territory of Erula)
48. Laccheddu 1
49. Laccheddu 2
52. Leriga (sa)
56. Mesu de Montes
57. Midda de Giuseppe Ruiju
58. Midda Manna
59. Monte Aldu
60. Monte Attarzu
61. Monte Cuccuma o Cuccullai
62. Monte Culumba
63. Monte Pertusa
64. Monte de sOzu
65. Monte Zennaru
66. Moronzanos o Baldedu
67. Muntiju de Chelvos 1
68. Muntiju de Chelvos 2
69. Muntiju de su Aldu
72. Ostija o Urtigia
73. Ortos (sos)
74. Padru Giosso
75. Pala de Nicola
76. Pattada (sa)
78. Paulusedda o Palusedda
79. Pedru Canu o Funtana Pudida o sElighe Entosu.
80. Pedra Ilvena o Ulvine
81. Piddiu 1
82. Piddiu 2
83. Pisciu Accas
84. Puddu (su) o sa Tanca Brujada
86. Rosa o derosa
89. Santa Caderina o Biancu
91. Serra de Coloras
92. Serra Pantaleo
93. Tanca Etza (sa)
94. Tanca de su Re (sa)
97. Sue Zunis o de sas Paghes
103. Ui (Reggia Nuragica)
NOTE: Other toponyms or nuraghess names which could not be found but which are present in the memory of some old people: Su Bomberi, Istampa e' Abbas, s'Argentu, su Tragliu, Aidu Ebbas, Barrasone, Cambinu, Canudu, Sa Toa, Fustelarzos, Lazu segadu, Majore,Marena, Mannu, Spinudria, Tres Signoras, Laccana, Giolzi Crilpu, Istampa de abbas.
1. Bellimpiattu o Badu de Muzeres
3. Culu de saccu
4. Mesana (sa)
5. Furrighesos (sos)
6. Monte Pertusu (necropolis)
7. Moronzanos 1
8. Moronzanos 2
9. Murrone (necropolis)
10. Peruchi o Badu Olta
11. Pianos (sos)
They differ one from the other and are scattered in great numbers here and there. I shall indicate a few of them in the following territories: Cacchile, Sa Tanca de su RE, Badde de Matta, sIstria, Serra de Coloras, Massidda, Meddaris and others.
About ten sarcophagi are present, wrought in a single megalith.
An isolated one is to be found in sa Tanca de su Re and in sos Terrelas.
1. Tombe Badde
3. Caddalzu 1
4. Caddalzu 2
5. Caddalzu 3
7. Crastu Covaccadu
8. Elighe Entosu (s)
10. Ena (s)
11. Figu Niedda (sa)
12. Midda Manna (sa)
13. Monte sOzu 1
14. Monte sOzu 2
15. Monte sOzu 3
16. Pisciu Accas
17. Puddu (su)
18. Serra de Coloras o Culu de Muru
note: As I previously said, what I wrote is a kind of a work in progress assessment; the
research is still going on, although I believe that a certain percentage of it,
approximately 90%, has already been done. In
IGM reports 45 nuraghes less than half of those that I listed, no Domus de Janas, Tombs of Giants and all the rest, that I instead presented to you and about which I hope you took pleasure in reading, if for nothing else out of mere curiosity. If you wish to know more, especially concerning recent discoveries, you may contact me, criticizing the information that I have given and adding elements which have not been previously considered in this study. All your contributions will be gratefully accepted and will help complete this research aiming at the reconstruction of the cultural heritage of all of us, the people of Chiaramonti. Mario Unali.
I thank my dear friend Prof. Angelino Tedde for his kind collaboration. [Translated by L.U.]